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Choosing the Right Bending Radius in Sheet Metal Forming (2)

Continuing with the topic of our last post:

DIN 6935 is a standard that specifies the minimum bend radius for sheet metal based on the thickness of the material. The standard provides guidelines for determining the minimum bend radius for various sheet metal materials.

The minimal allowable bending radiuses, are listed in table 1 of the standard.

Let us check some few examples, to understand, how the thickness and the steel grade affects the minimal bending radius.

According to that table, for a low resistance, low-carbon steel (tensile strength up to 380 N/mm2), for a 1 mm thickness, the minimal bending radius is 1 mm. But for a 20 mm thickness, the radius is 40 mm.

The same table, for a steel with a tensile strength from 490 to 640 N/mm2, for a 1 mm thickness, the minimal bending radius is 1.6 mm. But for a 20 mm thickness, the radius is 63 mm (for the bend parallel to the rolling direction). (and that would be 50 mm in the case of a transverse bend).

You can note there is a clear difference.

So, please note that the minimal bend radius for a given sheet metal application depend on a variety of factors, including the specific alloy or grade of material, the thickness of the sheet, and the desired degree of bend. And even the direction of rolling vs. the direction of bending.

It's important to consult the relevant standards and guidelines and your sheet metal supplier’s tables and suggested radii.

The DIN 6935 standard also sets forth the calculation criteria for determining the developed (flat) lengths of sheet metal bends. For your information, the patterns obtained using our sheet metal fabrication tool, available at, incorporate these criteria.LITIO - 2023-03-30
    Portoroz, Primorska si

Choosing the Right Bending Radius in Sheet Metal Forming

Selecting the appropriate bending radius is an essential aspect of designing precision sheet metal parts. It not only ensures the structural integrity of the formed part but also enables quick, accurate, and cost-effective sheet metal fabrication.

It is important to avoid common mistakes when determining the bend radius of a formed part. For instance, avoid using a bend radius that standard tooling cannot create, as this will require custom tooling, which is both costly and time-consuming.

Another common mistake is measuring the inside bend radius the same as the material thickness. Although it may seem like a viable solution (for small thicknesses), it can cause cracking for thicker sheet metal or with metal that are harder than plain steel.

So, what is the best approach? Use the industry standard bend radius for the metal and thickness you are working with. This approach ensures consistent, high-quality parts with solid structural integrity, while saving you both time and money, and eliminating the need for custom tooling.

It is unnecessary to be concerned about changes to the flange length when you adjust the bend radius. Redesigning the bend radius generally does not affect part functionality. The goal should be to keep the range of change as narrow as possible.

The best radius choice is ultimately dependent on your experience and your available tooling. Have you ever measured your bending radii based on the tools (your bending press punches and dies) you use and the sheet metal thickness? This approach may be the best when dealing with bend radius selection.

Additionally, please check the available tables for different materials and thicknesses in the standards, such as DIN 6935 for Cold Bending of Flat Rolled Steel or your metal sheet supplier's recommendation tables, for minimal radii selection to prevent cracking.

Some more on this in a future post.LITIO - 2023-03-28
    Portoroz, Primorska si

Sheet metal and industry trade shows for April 2023

The following trade shows are programmed for this April 2023. As usual, some of them may feature other industries in addition to the sheet metal and sheet metal working technologies sections.

Once a year, in April, there is the KYIV TECHNICAL FAIR [an general international trade fair].
Kiev (Ukraine) - Kiev International Exhibition Center

We do not have information if this will take place this year.

Near the area we will have quite some events:

04 - 07 Apr 2023
Minsk Marriott Hotel,
Minsk, Belarus

That same weekend, also in Minsk, we have the

Metal cutting machines, metalworking centers, control and measuring equipment, tools and instruments
Minsk, Belarus

And also, within the same event, there will be:
Welding, cutting and related technologies.

Not that far away from the previous one, we will have:

Metallurgy & Metalworking Mechanical Engineering Welding
05 - 07 Apr 2023
Uzekspocentre Exhibition Centre
Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Going to the Americas, we will have:

Langley Metalworking & Manufacturing Expo
12 Apr 2023
Langley Events Centre
Langley, Canada

Precision Machining Technology Show
18 - 20 Apr 2023
Huntington Convention Center of Cleveland
Cleveland, USA

Alabama Locksmith Association Technical Show
22 Apr 2023
DoubleTree by Hilton
Birmingham Perimeter Park, Birmingham, USA

Back in Asia, there will take place

Welding & Sheet Metal Korea
12 - 14 Apr 2023
Songdo Convensia
Incheon, South Korea

Pune (India)
Auto Cluster Exhibition Centre
04/27/2023 [3 days]

And, finally, to check in Spain we will have:

Advanced Machine Tools
18 - 20 Apr 2023
Fira Barcelona Gran Via
Barcelona, SpainLITIO - 2023-03-24
    Portoroz, Primorska si

Pros and Cons of Different Welding Processes in Sheet Metal Fabrication
Hello there!

In this article, we'll take a closer look at the advantages, disadvantages, and potential uses of various welding techniques in sheet metal fabrication.

Spot Welding:
* Provides an excellent finish quality.
* Requires specific equipment, preparation and fixturing.
* Welds are strong but not watertight.
* Limited to certain material thicknesses and part geometries.
* The most cost-effective and speedy welding option for large-scale projects.
* Ideal for constructing channels.

Tack Welding:
* A cost-effective method of joining two parts when a high-quality weld is not required.
* Not suitable for structural applications.
* Welds are not watertight.

Fuse Welding:
* Frequently used on steel or stainless steel parts.
* Can create watertight welds.
* Although not a cosmetic weld, can be made very thin and requires little or no cleanup.

Stitch Welding:
* Appropriate when a continuous seam is not required.
* Not watertight.
* Less expensive than a full seam.
* Low risk of part deformation due to minimal heat generated.

Plug Welding:
* High risk of deformation due to the amount of heat required.
* Time-consuming and difficult to clean.
* Not watertight.

Seam/Fillet Welding:
* Demands the highest level of cleanliness of all welding techniques.
* Produces a sturdy and watertight seal.
* Prone to deformation, depending on material thickness and seam length.

MIG welding:
* Faster than other arc welding methods, such as TIG welding.
* Can create watertight joints.
* Welding is not as clean as TIG welding, so not ideal for precision parts.

TIG welding:
* One of the most common welding methods.
* Slower and more expensive than other methods.
* Yields high-quality, strong, and clean welds.

In conclusion, understanding the different welding methods available and their unique strengths and limitations is critical to choosing the best one for your sheet metal fabrication needs.LITIO.SI - 2023-03-22
    Moravce, Gorenjska si

Sheet Metal Workshop Welding: An introductory Guide

Welding processes can be quite complex, and it is no different when it comes to sheet metal fabrication. In this article, we will give you an introduction to the different welding methods that you may come across in a sheet metal workshop. In a future article, we will explore in greater detail the benefits, limitations, and potential uses of each method.

Spot welding involves compressing two sheets of metal together and then applying pressure and heat with copper electrodes to create a weld bead that joins the pieces.

Tack welding is a temporary welding process that is used to hold sheet metal parts in place until they can be permanently welded together. This is a common method of assembly and part preparation.

Fuse welding is achieved by heating two surfaces until they fuse together, with or without filler material.

Stitch (intermittent) welding involves applying short sections of weld (between 25 to 50 mm in length) spaced along the connection between two parts. A filler rod is typically used.

Plug welding involves filling a round hole or groove with a weld bead to join two parts or surfaces.

Seam/fillet welding is one of the most commonly used methods, and it can be achieved through arc welding, which uses a filler rod to create a continuous weld along the joint.

MIG welding is an arc welding method that is commonly used on large pieces of thick material. The electrode is a continuous, coiled wire that passes through a welding gun.

TIG welding is an excellent method for precision parts. It uses a tungsten electrode, and hand-added filler metal can be used to create the weld.

Understanding the basics of each method can help you determine which one is best suited for your project.LITIO.SI - 2023-03-20
    Moravce, Gorenjska si

Your Resource for Industry Tips, Trends, and Techniques

Welcome to our blog/forum! We're dedicated to providing comprehensive information on sheet metal fabrication, including operations, processes, materials, hardware, machines, tools, and safety. Our goal is to offer a one-stop-shop for everything related to the sheet metal industry.

In addition to the information you will naturally find on the use of our online application for the creation of sheet metal developments, which we invite you to try, our blog/forum features a wide range of articles, from design tips to material selection, welding techniques, safety and health, industry news, events, and trade shows; and much more. Whether you're a workman, design professional, a supplier, a customer or the proud owner of a sheet metal workshop, we have something for you.

We invite you to contribute to our community by rating articles, leaving comments, answering, or adding information to existing posts, and sharing your knowledge. If you don't find a topic you're looking for, feel free to add your own article. Please note that you must be logged in to post in our forum.

Thank you for visiting, and we hope you find our blog/forum informative and useful.

Kind regards!LITIO.SI - 2023-03-18
    Moravce, Gorenjska si

All this can be done online - what about your sheet metal patterns? (part 2)

Here are some more examples of things that can be done online:

Online file sharing allows you to send large files to others over the internet.

Online project management platforms can help you manage projects and collaborate with others remotely.

Virtual event hosting tools enable you to host virtual events, such as conferences or webinars.

Online design and creativity tools offer online design and collaboration tools for creating graphics, web pages, and other digital media.

Online investment and trading platforms allow you to invest and trade stocks, options, and other financial instruments online.

Online tax preparation services enable you to prepare and file your taxes online.

Online ticketing and reservation websites allow you to book tickets for events or make restaurant reservations online.

Online legal services platforms provide online legal advice, document preparation, and other legal services.

Online fundraising and donation platforms enable individuals and organizations to raise money for various causes online.

Online news and information websites offer online news and information on current events and other topics.

Online fitness and wellness platforms offer online fitness and wellness services, such as virtual workouts or health coaching.

Online game and app development tools enable game and app developers to create and test software online.

These are just a few more examples of the many things that can be done online. The internet has revolutionized the way we work, learn, socialize, and consume media, and it continues to offer new opportunities and innovations every day.

Isn’t it the time you start making your Sheet Metal Patterns Online too?LITIO - 2023-03-16
    Portoroz, Primorska si

All this can be done online - what about your sheet metal patterns? (part 1)

There are lots of stuff you can do online now. Including your sheet metal patterns.

Let’s check (quite) some examples:

Online banking allows you to manage your bank accounts, transfer funds, and pay bills.

Grammar and spell-checking online tools can help you improve your writing by detecting and correcting errors in your grammar, spelling, and punctuation.

PDF creation and editing online tools enable you to create and edit PDF documents.

Online file conversion services can convert files from one format to another.

Cloud storage services allow you to store and share files online.

Online shopping websites allow you to purchase goods online and have them delivered to your door.

Online education - online learning platforms offer courses on various topics.

Social media platforms enable you to connect with others, share content, and stay informed.

Video conferencing tools enable you to hold virtual meetings and collaborate with others remotely.

Online booking services allow you to book accommodations or travel arrangements online.

Job search websites enable you to search for job opportunities and submit applications online.

Entertainment - streaming services allow you to access a vast library of movies, TV shows, music, and podcasts.

Online survey tools enable you to create and distribute surveys to collect feedback or data.

Online language translation services can translate text from one language to another.

Online health service platforms allow you to consult with a medical professional online.

These are just a few examples of the many things that can be done online. The internet has opened up a world of possibilities, and there are countless other online tools and services that can make our lives easier and more convenient.

Isn’t it the time to start making your Sheet Metal Patterns Online too?LITIO - 2023-03-14
    Portoroz, Primorska si

Enhancing Our Website with Descriptive Text and Tips + longer blog/forum post

I am pleased to announce that we have implemented several key improvements to our website to enhance the user experience and provide our visitors with the best possible content.

Pattern Tips And category descriptions:
One of these improvements is the addition of descriptive text and tips on our pattern pages. This is an important step in helping users select the appropriate pattern category and providing them with additional guidance for parameter input. By doing so, we are empowering our users to make informed decisions and have a more fulfilling experience on our website.

Longer blog/forum post:
Additionally, we have increased the text length for our blog and forum posts from 900 to 2000 characters. This allows us to provide more detailed and comprehensive content to our readers, ensuring that we are delivering the best possible value to them. Our readers can now enjoy more in-depth articles and forum discussions, making their time on our website more informative and engaging.

We are working to continuously improving our website and providing the best possible user experience for our visitors.

Thank you!

JuanAdmin - 2023-03-11
    Sentrupert, Dolenjska si

possible users and uses of

Some reflections on this matter:

Users do not need a CAD platform, or can just have a very elementary CAD platform as, e.g., AutoCAD lite, to do some minimal additional drafting work to the parts. Usually, the DXF would be used to be loaded into a CAM cutter (laser, plasma, etc.), or be plotted 1 to 1 for manual cutting. No need to have costly 3D modeling programs.

The typical user would be the individual sheet metal workshop owner, or small to medium sheet metal workshops (who maybe are now doing this by hand or hiring a 3rd party for pattern drafting). Bigger workshops could have the 3D modeling program for complex jobs, while working with for the standard patterns.

As mentioned elsewhere on this forum and the website, we are still working on it; please note, that some of the features still need to be activated. Some front end to be improved too.Admin - 2023-03-06
    Sentrupert, Dolenjska si

Labor risks at a sheet metal workshop - Introduction

I previous posts, I have made a general overview on occupational safety and health risks at a sheet metal workshop.

I will go in depth per type of risk in some future posts.

Note, that all what I will be describing may not be applicable to all workshops; and some risks are not that evident as others; some are subtle.

Before going into this in detail, just remember, that the use of PPE does not replace the need for safe work practices, such as proper tool handling, the use of guards on machinery, and regular maintenance of equipment.

It is also important to ensure that employees are properly trained on the proper use of machinery, on the use and care of PPE, as well as the hazards specific to their job tasks.

More in following posts.LITIO.SI - 2023-03-01
    Moravce, Gorenjska si

March international trade shows related with sheet metal
March will have lots of activities. To mention some few:

Qingdao International Convention Center

Taipei International Machine Tool Show
Taipei (Taiwan)
Taipei Nangang Exhibition Center

International Show for Sheet Metal, Coil, Tube and Section Equipment
Lyon (France) - Eurexpo

MACHINE TOOLS & HARDWARE ASIA – KARACHI Pakistan's Machine Tools & Hardware Trade Show
MINES, MINERALS & METAL ASIA - KARACHIInternational Mines, Mineral and Metal Show
Karachi (Pakistan) - Karachi Expo Centre

International Exhibition for Metalworking and Welding
Novosibirsk (Russia) - Novosibirsk Expocentre

Sheet Metal Processing and Cutting Fair
Kielce (Poland) - Kielce Fairground
03/28/2023LITIO.SI - 2023-02-27
    Moravce, Gorenjska si

Sheet metal workshop occupational safety and health risks (II)

Continuing with Sheet metal workshop OS&H risks, when engineering controls cannot be implemented, or in addition to them, consider the following Personal Protective Equipment (PPE):

1. earplugs or noise-cancelling headphones, for workers exposed to loud noise

2. dust masks or respirators, for workers exposed to dust and fumes

3. safety glasses, goggles, or face shields, to protect eyes from flying debris

4. welding masks & filters (to protect eyes from heat, intense light and invisible radiation), for welders

4. gloves and arm guards to protect from cuts and burns

5. slip-resistant footwear to reduce the risk of slips and falls

6. laser glasses

Remember, PPE is not a substitute for a safe work environment, but rather a supplement to it.

Proper training, safety procedures and regular maintenance of equipment also play an important role in ensuring the safety of workers.Admin - 2023-02-23
    Sentrupert, Dolenjska si

Sheet metal workshop occupational safety and health risks

I will provide some insights on typical Sheet metal workshop occupational safety and health.

I will start with an quick overview:

The risks include:

1. Noise exposure from power tools and machinery

2. Respiratory hazards from dust and fumes

3. Risk of cuts, lacerations, and punctures from sharp edges and tools

4. Risk of burns from hot metal and welding

5. Risk of slips, trips, and falls from cluttered work areas

To deal with these risks, engineering controls and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) can be implemented.

Engineering controls:

1. Install noise-reducing barriers or enclosures around power tools and machinery

2. Implement a dust and fume extraction system to improve air quality

3. Install guards on machinery to prevent contact with moving parts

4. Provide proper lighting to reduce the risk of fallsLITIO.SI - 2023-02-22
    Moravce, Gorenjska si

Types of operations that take place at a sheet metal workshop
There are several operations that may take place in a sheet metal workshop:

1. Cutting sheet metal to specific sizes and shapes using tools such as shears, snips, saws, and lasers.

2. Bending sheet metal parts using a press brake or a bending machine.

3. Punching and Piercing, to cut holes and other shapes into sheet metal using a punch press.

4. Sheet metal is welded together using various welding methods such as MIG, TIG, and spot welding.

5. Finishing: by polishing or painting.

6. Sheet metal parts are assembled into a final product, using screws, rivets, or other fasteners.

7. CNC machines are used to punch and laser cut sheet metal with high precision and efficiency.

8. Forming: to form sheet metal into complex shapes.

9. Stamping: for specific shapes; a stamping press and a die set is used.

All these operations are done with the help of specialized machines and equipment.Admin - 2023-02-20
    Sentrupert, Dolenjska si

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